It was similar in Subject 1 and 4. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hum. Biomed. 10, 1 December 2016 | Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 4, 29 June 2018 | Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Vol. Parkinsonism reduces coordination of fingers, wrist, and arm in fine motor control. 107, No.

Each of the two muscle synergies shown (red and green bars) is represented as an activation balance profile across muscles (muscles 1–5) and activated, through multiplication, by a time-dependent coefficient. As a result of EWA, all muscles and muscle synergies exhibited statistically significant ADs (Figures 4, 5), which refers to the shuffled data. “How flexible are muscle synergies?” in Motor Control: Concepts and Issues, eds D. R. Humphrey and H. J. Freund (New York, NY: Wiley Press), 33–47. The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Muscle synergies and complexity of neuromuscular control during gait in cerebral palsy. (A) Some of the affected-arm synergies from the chronic patients in our dataset could neither be directly matched to an unaffected-arm synergy nor be explained as a merging of multiple unaffected-arm synergies. J. Neurophysiol. J. Biomech. 4, Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. Children with and without dystonia share common muscle synergies while performing writing tasks. Softw. (2011). The results indicated that ADs of muscle synergies were evenly distributed within the horizontal plane and that the reduction of redundancy in the musculoskeletal system works by combining muscles with different ADs and applying various strategies. doi: 10.1152/jn.00109.2014, Hagio, S., and Kouzaki, M. (2015a). It remains to be seen whether the synergy organization can be used to control a wide range of activities, and the extent to which synergies are shared across different types of tasks. 2003a, b).

11, No. The set of extracted muscle synergies may thus be viewed as a compact representation of the most salient features embedded within the variability present in the EMG dataset. Development and validation of a scale for rating motor compensations used for reaching in patients with hemiparesis: the reaching performance scale. EWA direction of muscle activities.

Increasing further the number of clusters would prevent any kind of generalization, and consistently, were a priori discarded. doi: 10.1007/s00422-005-0004-1, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Aramaki, Y., Nozaki, D., Masani, K., Sato, T., Nakazawa, K., and Yano, H. (2001). Because the EMG data were reconstructed as a weighted sum of synergies at each perturbation direction (Fig. Ther. Brain Res. C, EMG variability over all object conditions was well accounted for by reconstruction using spatial synergies. The experimental procedures used in this study were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and were approved by the Committee for Human Experimentation at the Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies at Kyoto University (Approval number 28-H-22). The spatiotemporal muscle synergies could be decomposed directly into just four (G2) or five (G1) spatial synergies, with R2 ≥ 95% of the variance in the spatiotemporal synergy matrices preserved (Fig. Tresch, M. C., Cheung, V. C. K., and d’Avella, A. It is likely that the third synergy fine-tuned the horizontal plane forces, contributing to the previously reported force constraint strategy in the response to translation, in which the applied forces tend to group around two main directions in the horizontal plane, regardless of the direction of translation (Macpherson 1988a).

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